Friday, July 19, 2024

Analytical and Illustrative Impact of Section 87A Rebate Change on Short-Term Capital Gains (STCG)

The recent update to the income tax filing utility on the income tax portal, released on July 5, 2024, has caused significant concern among taxpayers and tax professionals. This update has altered the way the rebate under Section 87A is applied, specifically affecting taxpayers with short-term capital gains (STCG) despite no amendments being made to the Income Tax Act, 1961. This analysis will delve into the implications of this change and provide illustrative examples to elucidate its impact.

Key Details and Analytical Insights:

  1. Rebate Eligibility Under Section 87A:

    • As per the Union Budget 2023, under the new tax regime, individuals with a taxable income of up to Rs 7 lakh are eligible for a rebate of up to Rs 25,000 under Section 87A.
    • The old utility allowed taxpayers to claim this rebate even if their income included STCG, provided the total income was below Rs 7 lakh.
    • The new utility update denies this rebate to taxpayers with STCG, effectively increasing their tax liability, despite their total income being within the eligible limit.
  2. Impact on Taxpayers:

    • The change primarily impacts low-income earners who rely on the Section 87A rebate to reduce their overall tax burden.
    • Taxpayers with STCG now face higher tax liabilities, as they are unable to claim the rebate, leading to a discrepancy between the intended benefits of the new tax regime and its actual implementation.
  3. Expert Opinions:

    • Tax professionals, including Mayank Mohanka, Founder Director at TaxAaram India, have noted this anomaly and urged for corrective measures. They highlight that the issue arises from the interpretation of "total taxable income" by the new utility, which excludes the rebate for incomes including STCG, contrary to the legislative intent.

Illustrative Examples:

Example 1: Resident Individual with STCG and Low Income

Ajay has the following income for the financial year:

  • Salary Income: Rs 1 lakh
  • Short-term Capital Gain (STCG) on shares: Rs 4 lakh
  • Income from Other Sources: Rs 50,000


Income TypeAmount (Rs)
Salary Income1,00,000
Income from Other Sources50,000
Total Income5,50,000

Ajay’s total income is Rs 5.5 lakh, making him eligible for the rebate under Section 87A since his income is below Rs 7 lakh. However, due to the updated utility:

  • He cannot claim the rebate because his income includes STCG.
  • Tax on STCG (15% on Rs 4 lakh): Rs 60,000
  • Total tax liability: Rs 60,000

If Ajay had no STCG, he could have claimed the rebate, reducing his tax liability by Rs 25,000.

Example 2: Non-Resident with STCG

Suppose Ajay is a non-resident. He has:

  • STCG of Rs 4 lakh


Income TypeAmount (Rs)
  • STCG taxed at 15%: Rs 60,000
  • No basic exemption limit applies.
  • Total tax liability remains Rs 60,000 without any rebate.

Understanding Short Term Capital Gains (STCG) on Shares (Section 111A)

What are Short-Term Capital Gains?

Any profit or gain from the sale of shares held for 12 months or less is classified as short-term capital gains. Gains from listed equity shares are taxed under Section 111A at a concessional rate of 15%.

STCG Tax Rate on Shares (Section 111A)

  • Concessional Tax Rate: 15% with applicable cess.

Applicable Assets and Conditions:

  1. Assets Covered:

    • Equity shares
    • Units of equity-oriented mutual funds
    • Units of business trust
  2. Conditions:

    • Transferred through a recognized stock exchange
    • Transaction liable to securities transaction tax (STT)
    • Exception: Transactions in an International Financial Service Center (IFSC) taxable at 15% even if STT is not levied.

Adjustment Against Basic Exemption Limit:

  • Residents can set off STCG against any shortfall in the basic exemption limit.
  • Non-residents are taxed at 15% on full STCG without any exemption.

Example Calculations:

Example 3: Indian Resident with Multiple Incomes

Mr. A (59 years old) has:

  • Monthly pension: Rs 5,000
  • STCG from shares: Rs 1.5 lakh
  • STCG from property sale: Rs 1.3 lakh


Income TypeAmount (Rs)
Monthly Pension60,000
STCG from Shares1,50,000
STCG from Property1,30,000
Total Income3,40,000
  • Adjust pension income and STCG from property against the basic exemption limit of Rs 2.5 lakh.
  • Remaining Rs 60,000 from STCG on shares taxed at 15%: Rs 9,000 + 4% cess = Rs 9,360.

Example 4: Calculation of STCG

Mr. A purchased 1000 shares for Rs. 1,00,000 and sold them for Rs. 1,40,000, incurring Rs. 1,000 in brokerage. The STCG is calculated as follows:

ParticularsAmount (Rs)
Full value of consideration1,40,000
Less: Expenses for sale of shares1,000
Net sale consideration1,39,000
Less: Cost of acquisition of shares1,00,000
Short-term Capital Gains (STCG)39,000
Income tax liability on STCG (15%)5,850

Instances of STCG Covered Under Section 111A:

  • Sale of equity shares through a recognized stock exchange with STT.
  • Sale of units of equity-oriented mutual funds through a recognized stock exchange with STT.
  • Sale of units of a business trust.
  • Sale of equity shares, units of business trust, or units of equity-oriented mutual funds through an IFSC without STT.

Analytical Summary:

Impact on Taxpayer Behavior:

  • The utility update discourages taxpayers with STCG from opting for the new tax regime, as the rebate under Section 87A becomes inaccessible.
  • It could lead to a shift in investment strategies, with taxpayers potentially favoring long-term capital gains (LTCG) or other income sources to avoid higher tax liabilities.

Systemic Implications:

  • The change highlights the importance of aligning utility updates with legislative intent to avoid discrepancies and unfair tax burdens.
  • It emphasizes the need for clear communication from tax authorities to ensure taxpayers understand the changes and their implications.

Call for Rectification:

  • Experts advocate for a correction to the utility to restore the rebate eligibility for taxpayers with STCG, ensuring the new tax regime's benefits are fully realized by eligible taxpayers.
  • The correction would align the utility with the Income Tax Act, 1961, maintaining fairness and reducing the financial burden on low-income earners.

By merging the rebate issue with the detailed understanding of STCG under Section 111A, it is evident that the recent utility update has created confusion and needs rectification to ensure compliance with the Income Tax Act, benefiting low-income earners and maintaining fairness in the tax system.

Thursday, July 18, 2024

Guide to Creating Delivery Challans under GST

Complete Guide to Creating Delivery Challans under GST

Delivery Challans are crucial documents under the GST regime for the seamless transportation and tracking of goods. This guide integrates essential information and procedures for creating and managing Delivery Challans on the GST portal.

What is a Delivery Challan?

A Delivery Challan is a document used to record the movement of goods from one place to another under specific circumstances defined by GST laws. It serves as proof of delivery without including tax details.

Key Components of a Delivery Challan

Serial NumberSequentially numbered for tracking purposes.
Date of IssueDate when the challan is issued.
Consignor DetailsName, address, GSTIN, and CIN (Challan Identification Number).
Consignee DetailsName, address, GSTIN, or Unique Identity Number (UIN) if registered.
Goods DescriptionDetailed description including HSN code.
Quantity and ValueQuantity of goods transported and their total taxable value.
Transporter DetailsName, GSTIN (if applicable), mode of transport, and vehicle number.
SignatureAuthorized person's signature acknowledging dispatch.

Types of Delivery Challans

Job Work Delivery ChallanFor goods sent for processing, testing, or other job work.
Recipient Not KnownWhen recipient details are not known at the time of dispatch.
Supply on Approval BasisGoods sent for approval by the recipient before final sale.
Sales ReturnGoods returned by the buyer due to defects or other reasons.
Recipient’s RejectGoods rejected by the recipient upon delivery.

Importance of Delivery Challans

  • Legal Compliance: Ensures adherence to GST regulations during goods transportation.
  • Operational Efficiency: Facilitates smooth logistics and inventory management.
  • Proof of Delivery: Essential for confirming goods receipt by the recipient.

GST Compliance Tips

  • Accurate Details: Ensure all information, especially consignor/consignee details and goods description, is correct.
  • Sequential Numbering: Maintain a consistent serial numbering system for challans.
  • Timely Issuance: Issue challans promptly to avoid delays in goods movement.

Procedure for Issuing Delivery Challan on GST Portal

  1. Login to GST Portal

    • Access the GST portal with your credentials.
  2. Navigate to E-Way Bill Section

    • Select the "E-Way Bill" option from the main menu.
  3. Generate New Delivery Challan

    • Click on "Generate New" to create a new Delivery Challan.
    • Enter details such as transaction type, sub-type, document type, and specifics about consignor, consignee, and goods.
  4. Fill in Required Details

    • Include information like item details (HSN code, quantity, value), transporter details, and any other relevant information.
  5. Submit and Print

    • After verifying details, submit the form.
    • Print the generated E-Way Bill which includes the Delivery Challan for physical documentation.

Record-Keeping Best Practices

  • Digital Storage: Utilize digital platforms for secure storage and easy retrieval of challans.
  • Document Management: Organize challans systematically for audit and compliance purposes.
  • Retention Period: Maintain records as per GST regulations, typically for 72 months.

Recent Developments

  • Integration with E-Invoice: Introduction of E-Invoice system extends to Delivery Challans for enhanced digital tracking and compliance.
  • Legal Updates: Stay updated with changes in GST laws affecting Delivery Challans through official notifications.

Challenges and Solutions

  • Data Accuracy: Ensure accurate data entry to prevent discrepancies.
  • Regulatory Changes: Stay informed about evolving GST regulations impacting challan issuance.


  • Efficient Operations: Streamlines logistics processes.
  • Compliance Assurance: Meets statutory requirements.
  • Improved Customer Relations: Ensures timely and accurate delivery.

By following this comprehensive guide, businesses can effectively manage and leverage Delivery Challans to enhance operational efficiency and ensure compliance with GST regulations.

Wednesday, July 17, 2024

Understanding GST Payment Procedures: Form GST DRC-03 vs. Form GST DRC-03A


In the GST regime, adherence to correct procedures is critical to avoid inadvertent errors that can lead to complications. One such area involves the incorrect use of Form GST DRC-03 for settling demand orders, which is meant solely for voluntary tax payments. To address this issue, the GST Council introduced Form GST DRC-03A to facilitate the correct appropriation of payments made via Form GST DRC-03 against specific demand liabilities.

Key Differences

Form GST DRC-03Form GST DRC-03A
Purpose: For voluntary tax paymentsPurpose: Links payments to demand orders
Incorrect Use: Often used for demand ordersCorrection: Rectifies misuse of Form GST DRC-03
Action: Doesn't link payment to demand orderAction: Links payment to specific demand liability

Detailed Steps to File Form GST DRC-03A

  1. Access Form GST DRC-03A: Log in to the GST portal and navigate to the form section.

  2. Provide ARN of Form GST DRC-03: Enter the Application Reference Number (ARN) of the Form GST DRC-03 used for the payment.

  3. Auto-Populated Details: The form automatically populates details such as the amount paid and date from the submitted Form GST DRC-03.

  4. Enter Demand Order Reference: Input the reference number of the demand order or any rectification/appeal order against which the payment was intended.

  5. Auto-Fill Demand Details: The specific details of the demand order (amount, date of issuance) will be auto-filled based on the reference number provided.

  6. Verification and Submission: Review all the filled details, verify the undertaking and verification sections, and then submit the form using either your Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) or Electronic Verification Code (EVC).

Tips for Ensuring Error-Free Procedures

  • Double-Check Entries: Verify the accuracy of all entered details, including ARN, reference numbers, and payment amounts.

  • Maintain Detailed Records: Keep comprehensive records of all submitted forms, payment receipts, acknowledgments, and correspondences with tax authorities.

  • Stay Informed: Regularly check for updates and notifications on the GST portal to stay abreast of any changes in procedures or new form introductions.

  • Seek Professional Guidance: If unsure about any procedure or form usage, consult with a tax professional or GST consultant for expert advice and guidance.

Use Case: Pre-Deposit for Appeals

  • Scenario: In cases where taxpayers wish to appeal against an order from the Appellate Authority but cannot due to the non-operational status of the GST Tribunal, a pre-deposit of 20% of the disputed tax amount is required to stay recovery proceedings.

  • Payment Method: Directly pay the 20% disputed amount against the demand created in the Electronic Liability Ledger or use Form GST DRC-03A to rectify any incorrect payments made via Form GST DRC-03.

  • Declaration: Submit an undertaking to the jurisdictional officer stating the intent to file an appeal once the GST Tribunal is operational, thereby securing a stay on the demand amount.


Understanding the distinct purposes of Form GST DRC-03 and Form GST DRC-03A is crucial for effectively managing GST liabilities. By following the outlined steps meticulously and adhering to best practices, taxpayers can ensure that their payments are correctly appropriated, thereby avoiding unnecessary complications and delays in the GST payment process.

Maximizing Tax Benefits with Section 80CCD: A Comprehensive Guide to NPS and APY Contributions

Optimize Your Tax Savings with Strategic Contributions to the National Pension System (NPS) and Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

Paying your income tax accurately and timely is vital for the nation's economic growth. As a responsible Indian citizen, you must adhere to tax regulations, but you can also leverage various provisions in the Income-tax Act, 1961, to reduce your tax liability. One of the key provisions is Section 80CCD, which offers significant tax deductions for contributions to the National Pension System (NPS) and the Atal Pension Yojana (APY). This guide will provide an in-depth analysis of Section 80CCD, its components, eligibility criteria, deduction limits, and strategic tax-saving tips.

Understanding Section 80CCD

Section 80CCD of the Income-tax Act, 1961, relates to tax deductions available for contributions made towards the NPS and APY. This section aims to encourage individuals to secure their retirement by offering tax benefits. Section 80CCD is subdivided into three main parts:

  1. Section 80CCD(1): Deduction for individual contributions (self-employed or salaried) to NPS.
  2. Section 80CCD(1B): Additional deduction for individual contributions to NPS.
  3. Section 80CCD(2): Deduction for employer contributions to NPS.

Availability of Deductions Under Different Tax Regimes

SectionDeduction Relates ToNew Tax RegimeOld Tax Regime
80CCD(1)Individual's contribution to NPSNot availableAvailable
80CCD(1B)Additional individual's contribution to NPSNot availableAvailable
80CCD(2)Employer's contribution to NPSAvailableAvailable

Detailed Provisions of Section 80CCD

Section 80CCD(1)

Eligibility: This subsection applies to all individuals contributing to NPS, including government employees, private sector employees, self-employed individuals, and NRIs, between the ages of 18 and 70.

Deduction Limits:

  • For Employees: The maximum deduction permissible is 10% of their salary (basic + dearness allowance) in the previous year.
  • For Self-Employed: The maximum deduction permissible is 20% of the gross total income in the previous year.

Combined Deduction Limit:

  • The combined maximum deduction under Section 80C, 80CCC, and 80CCD(1) is Rs. 1.5 lakh per financial year.

Section 80CCD(1B)

Additional Deduction: Taxpayers can claim an additional deduction of up to Rs. 50,000 for contributions made to NPS over and above the deductions available under Section 80CCD(1).

Overall Maximum Deduction: The total maximum deduction available under Section 80CCD (1 and 1B combined) is Rs. 2 lakh (Rs. 1.5 lakh under 80CCD(1) + Rs. 50,000 under 80CCD(1B)).

Section 80CCD(2)

Eligibility: This subsection applies exclusively to salaried individuals.

Employer's Contribution:

  • Government Employees: Deduction is available for up to 14% of salary (basic + dearness allowance).
  • Other Employees: Deduction is available for up to 10% of salary (basic + dearness allowance).

Key Points:

  • The deduction under Section 80CCD(2) is available in addition to the deductions under Sections 80CCD(1) and 80CCD(1B).
  • There is no upper limit for the deduction under Section 80CCD(2), unlike the combined limit of Rs. 1.5 lakh for Sections 80C, 80CCC, and 80CCD(1).

National Pension System (NPS)

Objective: NPS was introduced to provide a structured pension system to Indian citizens, initially for government employees and later extended to the private sector and self-employed individuals.

Contribution Requirements:

  • Tier 1 Account: Mandatory contributions with a minimum of Rs. 6,000 per annum or Rs. 500 per month.
  • Tier 2 Account: Voluntary contributions with a minimum of Rs. 3,000 per annum or Rs. 250 per month.

Investment Options:

  • Equity funds, government bonds, securities, and more.

Withdrawal Rules:

  • Partial Withdrawals: Allowed up to 25% of the contribution under specific conditions.
  • At Retirement: Up to 60% can be withdrawn as a lump sum, with the remaining 40% invested in an annuity plan.


  • One of the cheapest equity-linked investment options.
  • Provides a structured approach to building a retirement corpus.

Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

Objective: APY is a government-backed pension scheme guaranteeing a minimum pension post-retirement. It is available to individuals aged 18 to 40, requiring a minimum contribution period of 20 years.

Pension Amounts:

  • Ranges from Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 5,000 per month.

Tax Benefits:

  • Up to Rs. 1.5 lakh under Section 80CCD(1).
  • Additional Rs. 50,000 under Section 80CCD(1B).

Additional Features:

  • On the death of the subscriber, the spouse can receive payments.
  • In case of premature death before the age of 60, the spouse can either withdraw the corpus or continue the scheme.

Strategic Tax-Saving Tips

  1. Maximize Contributions: Aim to contribute the maximum permissible amounts under Sections 80CCD(1) and 80CCD(1B) to fully utilize the Rs. 2 lakh deduction limit.
  2. Leverage Employer Contributions: Ensure that your employer is contributing to your NPS account to benefit from deductions under Section 80CCD(2), which do not have an upper limit.
  3. Combine Investments: Utilize the combined limit of Rs. 1.5 lakh under Section 80C along with the additional Rs. 50,000 under Section 80CCD(1B) for optimal tax savings.
  4. Start Early: Begin contributions to NPS and APY as early as possible to benefit from compounded growth and maximize your retirement corpus.
  5. Choose Investment Options Wisely: Diversify your NPS investments across equity, government bonds, and other securities to balance risk and returns.

Terms and Conditions

  • Eligibility: Deductions are available to both salaried and self-employed individuals. For government employees, contributions are mandatory; for others, they are voluntary.
  • Tax Regime: Benefits under Sections 80CCD(1) and 80CCD(1B) are available only under the old tax regime.
  • Proof of Payment: Required for claiming deductions.
  • Taxation on Withdrawals: Monthly pension payments or surrendered amounts from NPS are taxable. Amounts reinvested in an annuity plan are tax-exempt.


Illustration I

Mr. N is a central government employee who contributes Rs. 70,000 to the NPS account. His salary structure is as follows:

  • Basic Salary: Rs. 2,20,000
  • Dearness Allowance: Rs. 80,000
  • Other Allowances and Perquisites: Rs. 2,00,000
  • Investments under Section 80C: Rs. 80,000

Deduction Calculation:

  • Under Section 80CCD(1): Rs. 30,000 (10% of basic + DA).
  • Remaining Rs. 40,000 can be claimed under Section 80CCD(1B).

Illustration II

Mr. L is a central government employee whose total contribution to the NPS account is Rs. 70,000 (Rs. 35,000 by the employee, Rs. 35,000 by the employer). His salary structure is as follows:

  • Basic Salary: Rs. 2,20,000
  • Dearness Allowance: Rs. 80,000
  • Other Allowances and Perquisites: Rs. 2,00,000
  • Investments under Section 80C: Rs. 80,000

Deduction Calculation:

  • Under Section 80CCD(1): Rs. 30,000 (10% of basic + DA).
  • Under Section 80CCD(1B): Remaining Rs. 5,000.
  • Under Section 80CCD(2): Rs. 35,000 (employer's contribution).

By understanding and strategically utilizing the provisions under Section 80CCD, taxpayers can significantly enhance their tax savings while securing a comfortable retirement. Make informed decisions, leverage available deductions, and maximize your financial benefits through prudent planning and timely contributions.

Tuesday, July 16, 2024

Key Changes in Tax Rates and Section 87A Rebate: Impact on Income Tax Returns Before and After July 5, 2024

Major Amendments by the Finance Act 2023

The Finance Act 2023 has significantly amended Section 115BAC, making the new tax regime the default for Assessment Year (AY) 2024-25. This applies to individuals, Hindu Undivided Families (HUFs), Association of Persons (AOPs) (excluding cooperative societies), Body of Individuals (BOIs), and Artificial Juridical Persons. Taxpayers still have the option to opt out of the new regime and choose the old regime, which allows for various deductions and exemptions. Conversely, the new regime offers lower tax rates but without most deductions and exemptions.

Critical Change in ITR Utility from July 5, 2024

From July 5, 2024, a crucial update has been made to the Income Tax Return (ITR) utility, altering how the rebate under the new tax regime is availed due to language interpretation in the law. Understanding the updated slab rates is essential to ensure compliance and accuracy in filing returns.

Impact on Income Tax Returns Filed Before July 5, 2024

  • Old ITR Utility: Returns filed before this date used the previous version of the ITR utility.
  • Rebate Claim: The rebate under Section 87A was claimed based on the earlier understanding and interpretation of the law.
  • Possible Discrepancies: Any errors or discrepancies in claiming the rebate may necessitate filing a revised return or addressing notices from the Income Tax Department.

Impact on Income Tax Returns Filed After July 5, 2024

  • Updated ITR Utility: Returns filed on or after this date must use the updated ITR utility, which incorporates changes in the rebate method under the new tax regime.
  • Correct Rebate Claim: The new utility ensures the rebate is claimed correctly according to the updated provisions.
  • Awareness Required: Taxpayers must be aware of the updated rebate conditions and slab rates to avoid errors and ensure compliance.

Choosing the Tax Regime

Non-Business Cases

Taxpayers can choose their preferred tax regime each year directly in the ITR filed on or before the due date specified under Section 139(1).

Business and Profession Cases

Taxpayers must furnish Form 10-IEA on or before the due date under Section 139(1) for filing the return of income to switch regimes. This option can only be changed once in a lifetime for these taxpayers.

Updated Income Tax Rates for Individuals

Under the new regime, the income tax rates are as follows:

  1. Up to ₹2,50,000 - Nil
  2. ₹2,50,001 to ₹5,00,000 - 5%
  3. ₹5,00,001 to ₹7,50,000 - 10%
  4. ₹7,50,001 to ₹10,00,000 - 15%
  5. ₹10,00,001 to ₹12,50,000 - 20%
  6. ₹12,50,001 to ₹15,00,000 - 25%
  7. Above ₹15,00,000 - 30%

Rebate under Section 87A

Old Tax Regime

  • Rebate: Up to ₹12,500
  • Applicable if total income does not exceed: ₹5,00,000

New Tax Regime

  • Rebate: Up to ₹25,000
  • Applicable if total income does not exceed: ₹7,00,000

The rebate under Section 87A is not available for Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and HUFs. It is only available for individual residents.

Marginal Relief under Section 87A for New Tax Regime

A new amendment to Section 87A introduces marginal relief, applicable only under the new tax regime. This ensures that a slight increase in income above ₹7,00,000 will not immediately disqualify a taxpayer from receiving the rebate. Instead, the taxpayer will pay only a small amount for the excess income. The tax payable will not exceed the income of more than ₹7,00,000. Thus, the tax amount will be less than the difference between the total taxable income and ₹7,00,000.


These changes highlight the importance of understanding the updated tax provisions and using the correct ITR utility version. Taxpayers must stay informed about the new rebate conditions and slab rates to ensure accurate and compliant tax filings.

Understanding Section 54: Established Law for Non-Residents

Ensuring Fairness in Section 54 Deductions for Non-Residents


Section 54 of the Income Tax Act, 1961, provides an essential tax relief mechanism for individuals and Hindu Undivided Families (HUF) when they sell a residential property and reinvest the gains into another residential property. This section aims to encourage the reinvestment of capital gains in residential properties, thereby promoting the housing sector. This analysis delves into the legal principles underpinning Section 54, focusing on its application to non-residents and the importance of balancing procedural compliance with substantive rights.

Section 54: Legal Framework

Objective: Section 54 aims to mitigate the tax burden on taxpayers who sell a residential property and reinvest the proceeds in another residential property. It provides an exemption from capital gains tax, subject to certain conditions.


  • The taxpayer must be an individual or HUF.
  • The asset sold must be a long-term capital asset, specifically a residential house property.
  • The taxpayer must purchase another residential house property within one year before or two years after the date of transfer, or construct a residential house within three years from the date of transfer.


  1. Ownership: The new residential property must be purchased or constructed within the specified period.
  2. Investment of Capital Gains: The exemption is limited to the amount of capital gain reinvested in the new residential property.
  3. Lock-in Period: The new property must be held for a minimum of three years from the date of purchase or construction. If sold before three years, the exemption claimed will be reversed, and the capital gains will be subject to tax in the year of sale.

Application to Non-Residents

Non-resident taxpayers often face additional scrutiny and complexities in claiming tax benefits due to differences in filing requirements and procedural compliance. Section 54, however, applies uniformly to residents and non-residents, provided the conditions are met.

Key Considerations for Non-Residents:

  1. Documentation: Non-residents must maintain thorough documentation to substantiate their claims, including details of the sale of the old property and the purchase/construction of the new property.
  2. Compliance with Timelines: Adhering to the timelines specified under Section 54 is crucial. Non-residents should ensure that the reinvestment is made within the prescribed period.
  3. Procedural Requirements: While filing returns and procedural compliance is essential, substantive compliance—providing all necessary evidence and documentation—is equally important.

Legal Principles and Established Law

Substantive Law Over Technicalities: The principle that substantive law should prevail over procedural technicalities is well-established in Indian tax jurisprudence. Tax authorities and appellate bodies are expected to focus on the substance of the transaction and the intent of the law rather than mere procedural lapses.

Article 265 of the Constitution of India: Article 265 mandates that no tax shall be levied or collected except by the authority of law. This constitutional provision underpins the principle that tax benefits provided by substantive law cannot be denied based on procedural non-compliance alone.

Judicial Precedents

Sneh Lata Jain v. CIT: In this case, the court held that substantial rights should not be denied due to procedural lapses. The decision emphasized the need to consider the substantive compliance of the taxpayer.

Goetze (India) Ltd. v. CIT: While this case limited the Assessing Officer's power to entertain new claims during assessment proceedings, it allowed appellate authorities to consider such claims. This case reinforces the principle that higher appellate authorities have the discretion to consider substantial compliance and evidence presented by the taxpayer.

Practical Implications for Taxpayers and Authorities

For Non-Resident Taxpayers:

  1. Maintain Comprehensive Records: Ensure that every transaction related to the sale and purchase of properties is thoroughly documented.
  2. Understand the Timelines: Strictly adhere to the timelines specified under Section 54 for reinvestment to claim the tax benefits.
  3. Seek Professional Advice: Consult with tax professionals to navigate the complexities of procedural compliance and to ensure that substantive compliance is meticulously documented.


The established law under Section 54 of the Income Tax Act, 1961, emphasizes the importance of substantive compliance in claiming tax benefits. The principle that substantive law should prevail over procedural technicalities is crucial in ensuring fairness and justice for taxpayers, including non-residents. By focusing on the intent and substance of the law, both taxpayers and tax authorities can ensure the equitable application of tax provisions and the rightful claim of tax benefits.


  • Sneh Lata Jain v. CIT
  • Goetze (India) Ltd. v. CIT

This detailed analysis underscores the established law that the substantive rights of taxpayers should not be overshadowed by procedural formalities, ensuring justice and fairness in the application of tax laws.

Tax Benefits on Home Loans: Comprehensive Guide to Sections 24, 80EE, and 80EEA

Understanding the intricacies of tax benefits related to home loans under the Indian Income Tax Act can significantly reduce your tax liability. This detailed guide explores Sections 24, 80EE, and 80EEA, comparing their conditions, eligibility criteria, and strategies to maximize tax savings.

Section 24: Home Loan Interest Deduction

Overview: Section 24 allows homeowners to deduct interest paid on home loans from their taxable income. This deduction applies to both self-occupied and let-out properties.

Key Points:

  • Maximum Deduction: ₹2 lakhs per financial year for self-occupied properties.
  • No Upper Limit: For let-out properties, the entire interest amount can be deducted.
  • Loan Purpose: Applies to loans for purchase, construction, repair, renewal, or reconstruction of the property.


  • All Homeowners: Applies to both first-time and existing homeowners.
  • Property Type: Applicable to self-occupied or rented properties.
  • Loan Usage: Loan must be used for acquiring, constructing, repairing, or renovating the property.

How to Claim Deduction under Section 24:

  1. Calculate Interest: Total interest paid on the home loan during the financial year.
  2. Deduction Limit: Up to ₹2 lakhs for self-occupied properties; unlimited for let-out properties.
  3. Tax Filing: Claim the deduction while filing your annual income tax return.

Example: Mr. A owns a self-occupied property and pays ₹3 lakhs as interest on his home loan in a financial year. He can claim a deduction of ₹2 lakhs under Section 24, reducing his taxable income effectively.

Section 80EE: Additional Deduction for First-Time Homebuyers

Overview: Section 80EE offers an additional deduction on home loan interest exclusively for first-time homebuyers.

Key Points:

  • Maximum Deduction: ₹50,000 per financial year.
  • First-Time Homebuyers: Available only to individuals buying their first residential property.
  • Loan Sanction Date: Loan must be sanctioned during the financial year 2016-17.


  • First-Time Homebuyers: Individuals purchasing their first home.
  • Loan Amount: Maximum ₹35 lakhs.
  • Property Value: Property value should not exceed ₹50 lakhs.

How to Claim Deduction under Section 80EE:

  1. Calculate Interest: Total interest paid on the home loan during the financial year.
  2. Primary Deduction: Claim up to ₹2 lakhs under Section 24.
  3. Additional Deduction: Claim remaining amount, up to ₹50,000, under Section 80EE.

Example: Ms. B, a first-time homebuyer, pays ₹1.5 lakhs in interest on her home loan in a year. She can claim ₹1.5 lakhs under Section 24 and an additional ₹50,000 under Section 80EE, reducing her taxable income effectively.

Section 80EEA: Enhanced Deduction for Affordable Housing

Overview: Section 80EEA provides an enhanced deduction for first-time homebuyers purchasing affordable housing.

Key Points:

  • Maximum Deduction: ₹1.5 lakhs per financial year.
  • First-Time Homebuyers: Exclusively for individuals buying their first residential property.
  • Affordable Housing Criteria: Specific carpet area and property value limits apply.


  • First-Time Homebuyers: Individuals purchasing their first home.
  • Property Specifications:
    • Carpet Area: Metro cities (up to 60 sq. m); Non-metro cities (up to 90 sq. m).
    • Property Value: Stamp duty value should not exceed ₹45 lakhs.
  • Loan Sanction Date: Loan must be sanctioned between 1 April 2019 and 31 March 2021.

How to Claim Deduction under Section 80EEA:

  1. Calculate Interest: Total interest paid on the home loan during the financial year.
  2. Primary Deduction: Claim up to ₹2 lakhs under Section 24.
  3. Additional Deduction: Claim up to ₹1.5 lakhs under Section 80EEA, if eligible.

Example: Mr. C purchases an affordable housing property in a metro city with a carpet area of 55 sq. m and pays ₹2.5 lakhs as interest in a year. He can claim ₹2 lakhs under Section 24 and an additional ₹1.5 lakhs under Section 80EEA, effectively reducing his taxable income.

Comparative Analysis of Sections 24, 80EE, and 80EEA

Thresholds and Eligibility Criteria Comparison:

FeatureSection 24Section 80EESection 80EEA
Deduction Limit₹2 lakhs (self-occupied); Unlimited (let-out)₹50,000₹1.5 lakhs
EligibilityAll homeownersFirst-time homebuyersFirst-time homebuyers
Loan Amount LimitNo specific limitUp to ₹35 lakhsNo specific limit
Property Value LimitNo specific limitUp to ₹50 lakhsStamp duty value up to ₹45 lakhs
Carpet Area LimitNot applicableNot specifiedMetro: 60 sq. m; Non-metro: 90 sq. m
Loan Sanction DateNot applicableDuring F.Y. 2016-17Between 1 April 2019 and 31 March 2021
Property TypeSelf-occupied or rentedSelf-occupied or rentedSelf-occupied or rented
Entities Not EligibleNoneHUF, AOP, Corporations, Trusts, etc.HUF, AOP, Corporations, Trusts, etc.

Combined Usage Strategies

Optimal Tax Saving Strategy:

  1. Section 24 + Section 80EE: First-time homebuyers in 2016-17 can claim ₹2 lakhs under Section 24 and an additional ₹50,000 under Section 80EE.

  2. Section 24 + Section 80EEA: Buyers of affordable housing from 2019 to 2021 can claim ₹2 lakhs under Section 24 and an additional ₹1.5 lakhs under Section 80EEA.

  3. Choosing Between Sections 80EE and 80EEA: Taxpayers cannot claim deductions under both Sections 80EE and 80EEA simultaneously. Choose based on property specifics and eligibility.

Tax Saving Tips

  1. Timely Loan Sanction: Ensure your loan is sanctioned within the specified periods for Sections 80EE and 80EEA.

  2. Property Criteria Awareness: Verify that your property meets the value and area limits for Section 80EEA eligibility.

  3. Utilize Joint Loans: Co-borrowers can individually claim deductions, doubling benefits if eligible.

  4. Stay Informed: Keep abreast of tax law changes and budget updates to optimize your tax planning.

  5. Prompt Filing: File your tax returns promptly and accurately to claim all eligible deductions without delay.


Mastering Sections 24, 80EE, and 80EEA can significantly enhance your tax planning effectiveness when dealing with home loans. Understanding these sections' nuances and leveraging them strategically ensures maximum tax benefits, reducing your overall taxable income and liabilities.


  1. Can I claim deductions under both Section 24 and Section 80EE or 80EEA simultaneously? Yes, you can, provided you meet the eligibility criteria for each section.

  2. Is Section 80EEA applicable for rental properties? Yes, it applies to both self-occupied and rented properties, as long as other criteria are met.

  3. What happens if I miss claiming deductions in a financial year? Unused deductions can typically be carried forward to subsequent years, subject to certain conditions.

  4. Can co-borrowers claim deductions under Section 80EEA individually? Yes, if both meet the eligibility criteria individually, they can each claim deductions.

  5. Is there a limit on the number of years for which these deductions can be claimed? These deductions can generally be claimed annually until the home loan is fully repaid.

By applying these insights effectively, you can optimize your tax savings and financial planning related to home ownership.

Monday, July 15, 2024

Extension of Deadline for Submitting Annual Census on FLAIR Portal

Reserve Bank of India - Foreign Liabilities and Assets Information Reporting (FLAIR) System


We are pleased to inform you that the Reserve Bank of India has extended the due date for submitting the annual census on Foreign Liabilities and Assets (FLA) as of March 31, 2024. The initial deadline for the FLA return, which was previously set for July 15, 2024, based on unaudited Books of Accounts, has now been extended to July 31, 2024.

Entities are required to submit their FLA return on the FLAIR portal by this new date. Additionally, revisions to the FLA return can still be made until September 30, 2024, based on audited accounts. This extension provides additional time for entities to accurately report their FLA details. Ensure your submissions are completed by the revised deadline to comply with RBI requirements.

For more details, visit the official RBI notification or the FLAIR portal

Understanding TDS on Payments to Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) for AY 2024-25

Navigating the rules for Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) on payments to Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) can be intricate. This comprehensive guide covers the essentials of TDS under Section 195, including payment procedures to the government, TDS returns, and provisions for lower or nil deduction of TDS.

1. TDS on Payments to NRI (Section 195)

Section 195 of the Income Tax Act, 1961, outlines the requirements for TDS on payments to NRIs. Here’s a detailed breakdown:

Key Points:

  • Who Must Deduct TDS?

    • Any person (Resident or Non-Resident) liable to pay any sum to NRIs.
    • Payer: Resident or Non-Resident Indian.
    • Payee: Non-Resident Indian (Individuals) or Foreign Companies.
  • Types of Payments:

    • All payments to NRIs except salaries (TDS u/s 192) and certain interest payments (TDS u/s 194LB, 194LC, and 194LD).
  • When to Deduct TDS?

    • At the time of credit to the NRI's account or payment, whichever is earlier.
  • Threshold Limit:

    • No threshold limit. TDS must be deducted if the NRI's income is taxable in India.

TDS Rates on Different Payments:

Nature of PaymentRate of TDS
Short Term Capital Gains u/s 111A15%
Short Term Capital Gains other than 111A30%
Long Term Capital Gains u/s 112A (exceeding ₹1L)10%
Long Term Capital Gains (other than 112A)10%
Long Term Capital Gains on Sale of Property20%
Other IncomeNormal Slab Rates
House Property Rent30%

Note: Education cess (4%) and surcharge apply based on income thresholds:

Income ThresholdSurcharge Rate
Up to ₹50 LakhsNil
₹50 Lakhs to ₹1 Crore10%
₹1 Crore to ₹2 Crores15%
₹2 Crores to ₹5 Crores25%
Above ₹5 Crores37%

2. TDS on Sale of Property by NRIs (Section 194-IA)

Form 26QB is used for TDS on the sale of property.

TDS Rates for Property Sale:

Sale ValueLong Term Capital Gain TaxSurchargeTotal TaxHealth & Ed. CessApplicable TDS Rates
< ₹50 Lakhs20%Nil20%4%20.8%
₹50 Lakhs - ₹1 Crore20%10%22%4%22.88%
₹1 Crore - ₹2 Crores20%15%23%4%23.92%
₹2 Crores - ₹5 Crores20%25%25%4%26%
> ₹5 Crores20%37%27.4%4%28.496%

3. TDS Payments to Government and TDS Returns

3.1. TDS Payment:

  • TDS deducted on payments to NRIs must be paid to the government within 7 days from the end of the month in which the tax is deducted.
  • Example: If TDS is deducted on May 14, it must be paid by June 7.

3.2. TDS Returns:

  • TDS returns for payments to NRIs must be filed using Form 27Q. It needs to be filed quarterly:
    • April to June: July 31
    • July to September: October 31
    • October to December: January 31
    • January to March: May 31

Note: Form 26QB and Form 26QC cannot be filed if the payee is a Non-Resident.

3.3. Form 16A:

  • Form 16A is the TDS certificate issued by the deductor to the deductee for tax deducted and deposited under Section 195. It should be issued within 15 days from the date of filing.

4. Lower Deduction / NIL Deduction of TDS

NRIs can apply for lower or nil deduction of TDS using Form 13. Here’s how:

  • Application: Submit Form 13 to the assessing officer.
  • Approval: If approved, the certificate specifies the lower or nil rate of TDS.
  • Validity: The certificate is valid for the period specified.

By understanding these guidelines, you can ensure compliance with TDS requirements for payments to NRIs and avoid potential tax issues.

Understanding the Surcharge on Income Tax for Assessment Year 2024-25

If you fall under the higher income tax bracket (30%), you may be liable to pay an additional surcharge on your income tax liability beyond a certain threshold. Essentially, a surcharge is an extra tax imposed on taxpayers with higher incomes.

Purpose of the Surcharge

The government implements this surcharge to ensure that individuals with higher earnings contribute more towards income taxes compared to those with lower incomes. Additionally, there is a provision for marginal relief to mitigate the impact of the surcharge for certain taxpayers.

Key Updates

  1. Reduction in Highest Surcharge Rate: For income above ₹5 crores, the surcharge rate has been reduced from 37% to 25%, lowering the maximum marginal tax rate from 42.74% to 39%. This change applies under the new tax regime from April 1, 2023.
  2. Tax Rebate: A tax rebate on income up to ₹7 lakhs has been introduced in the new tax regime, meaning no tax is payable if your income is less than ₹7 lakhs.

Surcharge on Income Tax

A surcharge is an additional charge on the income tax payable by taxpayers with higher incomes during a particular financial year. Here are the current rates:

Surcharge Rates for Individual/HUF/AOP/BOI/Artificial Juridical Person

Net Taxable IncomeSurcharge Rate (Old Regime)Surcharge Rate (New Regime)
Less than ₹50 lakhsNilNil
More than ₹50 lakhs ≤ ₹1 crore10%10%
More than ₹1 crore ≤ ₹2 crore15%15%
More than ₹2 crore ≤ ₹5 crore25%25%
More than ₹5 crore37%25%

Note: The highest surcharge of 37% has been reduced to 25% under the new tax regime, effective from April 1, 2023.

Additional Notes

  • AOPs with Only Companies as Members: 15% surcharge if the total income exceeds ₹1 crore.
  • Long-Term Capital Gains (LTCG): Surcharge on LTCG from listed equity shares, units, etc., capped at 15%.

Surcharge Rates for Domestic Companies

Net Taxable IncomeSurcharge Rate (Normal Provisions)Surcharge Rate (Sections 115BAA/115BAB)
Less than ₹1 crore-10%
More than ₹1 crore ≤ ₹10 crore7%10%
More than ₹10 crore12%10%

Surcharge Rates for Foreign Companies

Net Taxable IncomeSurcharge Rate
More than ₹1 crore ≤ ₹10 crore2%
More than ₹10 crore5%

Surcharge Rates for Firms/LLPs/Local Authorities

For total income exceeding ₹1 crore, a surcharge of 12% is payable on the income tax computed.

Marginal Relief

Marginal Relief for Individuals: If total income exceeds ₹50 lakhs but is less than ₹1 crore, a 10% surcharge applies. Marginal relief reduces the excess tax burden for income slightly over ₹50 lakhs.

Marginal Relief for Firms/LLPs/Local Authorities: If total income exceeds ₹1 crore, a surcharge of 12% applies. Marginal relief ensures that the tax on income slightly over ₹1 crore does not become excessively burdensome.

Marginal Relief for Companies:

  • Domestic Companies: For income between ₹1 crore and ₹10 crores, a 7% surcharge applies. For income over ₹10 crores, the surcharge is 12%.
  • Foreign Companies: For income between ₹1 crore and ₹10 crores, a 2% surcharge applies. For income over ₹10 crores, the surcharge is 5%.


Understanding these provisions helps ensure compliance and effective tax planning. Stay updated with the latest changes to manage your tax liabilities efficiently.

Friday, July 12, 2024

Seamless EPF Withdrawals: Comprehensive Guide, Tax Planning, and Strategic Tips for Maximizing Benefits


This guidance note aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed procedure for the seamless withdrawal of the Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) amount. It also includes tips on effective tax planning to ensure you maximize your benefits and minimize tax liabilities. This note is essential for employees who are preparing for retirement, experiencing unemployment, or requiring partial withdrawals for specific needs.

Key Updates on EPF

  • EPF Interest Rate: The EPF interest rate for the financial year 2023-24 has been increased to 8.25%.
  • Partial Withdrawal Limit: The PF partial withdrawal limit for medical treatment has been increased to Rs. 1 lakh.
  • Tax on Interest: Interest on employee contributions exceeding Rs 2.5 lakh annually is taxable and subject to TDS.

Conditions for EPF Withdrawal

Complete Withdrawal

  • Retirement: Full withdrawal upon retirement.
  • Unemployment: Withdraw 75% after one month and the remaining 25% after two months of unemployment.

Partial Withdrawal

Partial withdrawals are permitted under specific circumstances as shown in the table below:

Reason for WithdrawalLimitYears of Service RequiredOther Conditions
Medical Purposes6 times monthly basic salary or employee’s share with interest, whichever is lowerNoneMedical treatment of self, spouse, children, or parents
MarriageUp to 50% of employee’s share of EPF7 yearsFor marriage of self, son/daughter, and brother/sister
EducationUp to 50% of employee’s share of EPF7 yearsFor education of self or children (post-matriculation)
Purchase/Construction of House/LandLand: Up to 24 times monthly basic salary plus DA; House: Up to 36 times monthly basic salary plus DA5 yearsProperty must be in the employee’s or joint name with spouse; one-time use during service
Home Loan RepaymentLeast of 36 times monthly basic salary + DA, total corpus (employer + employee contributions with interest), or total outstanding principal and interest10 yearsProperty must be registered in the employee’s or spouse’s name; required documents for housing loan
House RenovationLeast of 12 times monthly wages + DA, employee’s contribution with interest, or total cost5 yearsProperty must be registered in the employee’s or spouse’s name; facility can be availed twice (after 5 and 10 years)
Partial Withdrawal Before RetirementUp to 90% of accumulated balance with interest54 years oldWithdrawal should be within one year of retirement/superannuation

Step-by-Step Procedure for EPF Withdrawal

Physical Application

  • Composite Claim Form (Aadhaar): For members with Aadhaar and bank details seeded on the UAN portal. Submit the form directly to the EPFO office without employer attestation.
  • Composite Claim Form (Non-Aadhaar): For members without Aadhaar and bank details on the UAN portal. Submit the form with employer attestation to the respective EPFO office.

Online Application


  • UAN activated with a working mobile number.
  • UAN linked with Aadhaar, PAN, bank details, and IFSC code.


  1. Visit the UAN portal: UAN Portal
  2. Log in: Enter UAN, password, and captcha.
  3. Verify KYC: Check KYC details under the ‘Manage’ tab (Aadhaar, PAN, bank details).
  4. Claim Form: Navigate to ‘Online Services’ and select ‘Claim (Form-31,19,10C&10D)’.
  5. Enter Bank Details: Verify by entering your bank account number.
  6. Proceed: Click ‘Yes’ to sign the certificate of the undertaking.
  7. Select Claim Type: Choose between full EPF settlement, part withdrawal (loan/advance), or pension withdrawal.
  8. Submit: Provide necessary details and submit the application.

Taxability of EPF Withdrawal

  • Tax-Free: Contributions held for 5 consecutive years.
  • Taxable: If there is a break in contributions before 5 years.
  • TDS: Applicable for withdrawals before 5 years if the amount exceeds Rs. 50,000.
    • 10% TDS: If PAN is provided.
    • 30% TDS: If PAN is not provided.
    • No TDS: If Form 15G/15H is furnished.

Required Documents for EPF Withdrawal

  • Universal Account Number (UAN)
  • Bank account details
  • Identity and address proof
  • Cancelled cheque with IFSC code and account number

Entering Exit Date for PF Withdrawal

Update the exit date through the UAN portal, which is essential for withdrawal processing.

Checking EPF Withdrawal Status

  • Log in: Use UAN and password.
  • Track Claim Status: Under ‘Online Services’ tab, enter the reference number.

Tips for Smooth EPF Withdrawal

  1. Activate UAN: Ensure UAN is activated and linked with a mobile number.
  2. Verify KYC Details: Ensure Aadhaar, PAN, and bank details are updated.
  3. Submit Form 15G/15H: To avoid TDS if eligible.
  4. Update Exit Date: Ensure the exit date is updated in the UAN portal.
  5. Ensure Regular Contributions: Confirm that the employer makes regular contributions.

Tax Planning for EPF

  1. 5-Year Contribution: Maintain contributions for at least 5 years to avoid tax on withdrawal.
  2. Form 15G/15H: Submit these forms to avoid TDS if your income is below the taxable limit.
  3. Voluntary Provident Fund (VPF): Contribute to VPF for additional tax benefits under Section 80C.

Differential Impacts and Tax Planning Strategies

Early Withdrawal vs. Long-term Accumulation

  1. Early Withdrawal

    • Pros: Immediate liquidity for financial needs.
    • Cons: Higher tax liability if withdrawn before 5 years; loss of compounding benefits.
    • Tax Planning Tip: Avoid early withdrawals unless necessary. Explore other funding options to retain PF benefits.
  2. Long-term Accumulation

    • Pros: Tax-free benefits after 5 years; significant corpus due to compounding.
    • Cons: Funds are locked until maturity.
    • Tax Planning Tip: Utilize other investments for short-term needs and let PF grow for retirement.

Strategic Withdrawals

  1. Partial Withdrawals for Specific Needs: EPF allows partial withdrawals for certain needs like medical emergencies, education, and home purchase. These are often tax-exempt under specified conditions.

    • Tax Planning Tip: Plan withdrawals in alignment with these needs to maximize tax benefits.
  2. Staggered Withdrawals Post-Retirement: Instead of withdrawing the entire amount at once, consider staggered withdrawals to manage tax liabilities.

    • Tax Planning Tip: Withdraw amounts within the basic exemption limit annually to avoid tax.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  1. PAN Requirement: While not compulsory, providing PAN reduces TDS.
  2. EPF Contributions: Eligible for tax deductions under Section 80C.
  3. Increasing Contributions: Possible through Voluntary Provident Fund (VPF).
  4. Employer Contributions: Will not increase even if you opt for VPF.
  5. Withdrawal Processing Time: Typically takes 15-20 working days for the amount to be credited.


By adhering to these guidelines and tips, you can ensure a smooth and hassle-free EPF withdrawal process while effectively planning for taxes. Proper planning and strategic withdrawals from the Provident Fund can help optimize tax benefits and ensure a comfortable retirement. For further personalized advice, consider consulting with a professional tax advisor who can tailor strategies to your specific financial situation.

This guidance note aims to provide a thorough understanding of the PF withdrawal process, tax implications, and strategic planning for maximizing benefits.

Guidance Note on Filing the Foreign Liabilities and Assets (FLA) Return


The Foreign Liabilities and Assets (FLA) Return is a pivotal regulatory requirement mandated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA). This annual filing is imperative for Indian entities engaged in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) or Overseas Direct Investment (ODI). It serves the crucial function of capturing detailed information on foreign liabilities and assets as reflected in the financial statements of these entities.


Entities Obligated to File FLA Return:

  • Companies: Incorporated under the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs): Established under the LLP Act, 2008.
  • Other Entities: Including SEBI-registered Alternative Investment Funds (AIFs), Partnership Firms, and Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) involved in FDI or ODI activities.


Exemptions from FLA Return Filing:

  • The entity did not receive FDI or conduct ODI during the current or preceding financial years.
  • Foreign investments were limited to share application money without any outstanding FDI or ODI by the end of March.
  • Non-resident shareholders sold shares to residents without any remaining foreign investments.

Due Date and Penalties

Due Date for FLA Return Submission:

  • July 15th: Annual deadline for submission. In cases where audited financials are unavailable by this date, unaudited or provisional figures may be filed. Revised returns based on audited figures must be submitted by September 30th.

Penalties for Late Filing under FEMA:

  • Late Submission Fee (LSF): INR 7,500 for filings submitted after July 15th but before any enforcement actions.
  • Monetary Penalty: Up to 300% of the involved amount or a minimum of INR 2 Lakh if the amount cannot be quantified.
  • Daily Penalty: INR 5,000 per day for continued non-compliance beyond initial detection.

Detailed Information Required

The FLA Return comprises five comprehensive sections, each crucial for a thorough assessment of foreign liabilities and assets:

Section I – Identification Particulars

  • Prefilled Information: Includes company name, PAN, CIN, and contact details.
  • Contact Details: Provide comprehensive information on the contact person, including name, phone number, mobile number, email, designation, and website, along with the account closing date.
  • NIC Code: Utilize the National Industrial Classification (NIC) -2008 codes for industry specification. If engaged in multiple activities, select the primary revenue-generating activity.
  • Company Specifics: Indicate if the company is an Asset Management Company, involved in technical foreign collaborations, or conducted business activities in the last financial year. Specify the nature of FDI involvement.

Section II – Financial Details

  • Capital: Disclose the total paid-up capital, distinguishing between participating and non-participating share capital.
  • Profit and Loss Account: Detail profit/loss before and after tax, dividends issued, and any applicable taxes on dividends.
  • Reserves & Surplus: Report reserves and surplus figures separately from accumulated profit/loss balances.
  • Sales and Purchases: Include domestic and foreign sales and purchases of goods and services.
  • Employee Information: State the number of employees on the payroll.

Section III – Foreign Liabilities

  • FDI in India (10% or more equity participation): Provide details on foreign direct investors, initial FDI receipt date, investor specifics, equity holding percentages, and liabilities to direct investors, including any disinvestments.
  • FDI in India (less than 10% equity holding): Similar details applicable to entities with less than 10% equity holding by foreign investors.
  • Portfolio Investment in India: Specify equity and debt securities held by non-resident investors, excluding FDI.
  • Other Liabilities: Report financial liabilities with foreign unrelated parties, excluding domestic liabilities even if in foreign currency.

Section IV – Foreign Assets

  • ODI (10% or more): Detail the number of Direct Investment Enterprises (DIE) abroad, investment specifics, equity holdings, sales, purchases, employee numbers, and claims on DIE, including disinvestments.
  • ODI (less than 10% equity holding): Provide similar information for investments where the Indian entity holds less than 10% equity in the DIE.
  • Debt Securities and Portfolio Investment Abroad: Include investments in money market instruments and bonds under portfolio investment abroad.
  • Other Assets: Report financial assets with foreign unrelated parties, excluding domestic assets.

Section V – Variation Report

  • Auto-generated Report: This section compares the current year’s data with the previous year, highlighting variations.

Filing Procedure

Since June 2019, the FLA Return must be filed online through the FLAIR portal. The process involves meticulous steps to ensure accurate submission:

Setting Up a Business User in FLAIR Portal

  1. Access the FLAIR Portal: Visit the official FLAIR portal website.
  2. Register as a New Entity User: Complete the “Registration Form for New Entity User” to initiate registration.
  3. Provide Entity Details: Furnish comprehensive entity details, including Corporate Identification Number (CIN)/Registration Number, Company Name, PAN Number, registered address with PIN, and contact details. Confirm any changes to the CIN/Registration Number or company name during the last financial year ending in March.
  4. Authorized Person’s Information: Input details of the authorized person, including name, PAN number, and contact information.
  5. Upload Required Documents: Attach a verification letter, an authority letter, and copies of the PAN cards for both the entity and the authorized person.

Preparing and Submitting the FLA Return

  1. Create and Verify Business User: Upon registration and receipt of the RBI-issued password via email, log in to initiate preparation of the FLA return, structured into five sections for comprehensive reporting.
  2. Review and Submit: After completing the FLA return, download and thoroughly review it for accuracy before submitting it online through the FLAIR portal.

After Submission

  • Acknowledgment: Upon successful submission, the FLAIR portal will generate an acknowledgment confirming processing of the FLA return for the applicable year.

Key Recommendations and Cautionary Points

  • Data Accuracy: Scrutinize all data entries meticulously to prevent errors and discrepancies.
  • Timely Compliance: Adhere strictly to filing deadlines to avoid penalties and ensure regulatory compliance.
  • Documentation: Maintain thorough documentation of all foreign transactions and investments for substantiation during filing.
  • Professional Assistance: Consider engaging professional services to navigate complex regulatory requirements and ensure accuracy in filing.


This guidance aims to equip entities with comprehensive insights and procedural clarity necessary for successful FLA Return filing. Diligence in preparation, adherence to regulatory timelines, and meticulous attention to detail are crucial for ensuring compliance with RBI guidelines and FEMA provisions, thereby safeguarding against penalties and fostering regulatory adherence.

Tuesday, July 9, 2024

Guide to Reporting F&O Income in ITR 3 for AY 2024-25


Filing your Income Tax Return (ITR) can be daunting, especially when dealing with income from Futures and Options (F&O) trading. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the process of reporting F&O income in ITR 3 for the Financial Year 2023-24 (Assessment Year 2024-25), addressing every possible scenario, providing solutions, and offering tips for tax savings.

Understanding Different Types of Income

Futures and Options (F&O): These are derivatives trading in the stock market. The income from F&O trading is considered as "Profits and Gains of Business or Profession."

Intraday Trading: Buying and selling stocks on the same day. The income from intraday trading is treated as speculative business income.

Short-Term Capital Gain (STCG): Profit from selling equity shares or equity-oriented mutual funds held for less than 12 months. Taxed at 15%.

Long-Term Capital Gain (LTCG): Profit from selling equity shares or equity-oriented mutual funds held for more than 12 months. Taxed at 10% for gains exceeding Rs. 1 lakh.

Example Scenario

Mr. Rohan is a salaried employee who also trades in F&O and intraday trading. Here are his income details:

  • Salary: Rs. 6,00,000
  • Bank Interest: Rs. 30,000
  • Short-Term Capital Gain: Rs. 90,000
  • Long-Term Capital Gain: Rs. 2,00,000
  • Intraday Trading:
    • Gross Profit/Loss: Rs. 50,000
    • Expenditure Incurred: Rs. 5,000
    • Net Profit: Rs. 45,000
  • F&O Trading:
    • Gross Profit/Loss: Rs. -1,20,000
    • Expenditure Incurred: Rs. 15,000
    • Net Loss: Rs. -1,35,000

Step-by-Step Procedure to File ITR 3

1Login to Income Tax PortalVisit the Income Tax Portal. Login using your credentials. If you don’t have an account, register first. Go to e-file > Income Tax Return > File Income Tax Return. Select the Assessment Year (AY) 2024-25 > Online mode. Start New Filing > Individual > Select ITR Form > ITR 3.
2Fill in General Information and Audit DetailsComplete Part A – General Information with your name, address, PAN, date of birth, and contact information. Answer questions related to the maintenance of accounts and audit requirements. As per Section 44AA, maintain books of accounts if your turnover exceeds Rs. 10 lakh in any of the three immediately preceding years. Select "No" for audit under Section 44AB if your turnover is less than Rs. 1 crore.
3Enter F&O Business DetailsSelect code 13018 – other financial intermediation services. Enter your name and describe the business as “Future & Options.”
4Prepare Computation SheetCalculate your total turnover and net profit/loss from F&O. See detailed computation example below.
5Enter Details in ITR FormIn Schedule PL – Part A – P&L Account, enter F&O details under Sl. No. 46 and intraday details under Sl. 65. In Schedule BS (Balance Sheet), prepare and enter your Capital Account details under Source of Funds > Proprietor’s Fund and Application of Funds > Current Asset > Balance at Bank.
6Confirm Other SchedulesCheck Schedule CYLA (Current Year Loss Adjustment), BFLA (Brought Forward Loss Adjustment), CFL (Carry Forward Losses), and Schedule Special Income for automatic calculations of set-off and carry forward losses.
7Report Other IncomeEnter salary, capital gains, and interest income in their respective schedules.
8Preview and SubmitReview all the details carefully. Preview the filled form and submit it on the portal.

Detailed Computation Example

ParticularsTurnoverGross Profit/LossExpenditure IncurredNet Profit/Loss
IntradayRs. 3,00,000Rs. 50,000Rs. 5,000Rs. 45,000
FutureRs. 1,50,000Rs. -1,20,000Rs. 15,000Rs. -1,35,000
OptionsRs. 4,00,000Rs. 20,000Rs. 10,000Rs. 10,000
TotalRs. 8,50,000Rs. -50,000Rs. 30,000Rs. -80,000

Difference in Terms

Income TypeDescriptionTax TreatmentCarry Forward & Set Off
Intraday TradingBuying and selling stocks on the same day.Treated as speculative business income.Speculative losses can be carried forward for 4 years and set off only against speculative income.
Futures and Options (F&O)Trading in derivatives.Treated as non-speculative business income.Non-speculative losses can be carried forward for 8 years and set off against any business income.
Short-Term Capital GainProfit from selling equity shares or equity-oriented mutual funds held for less than 12 months.Taxed at 15%.Can be set off against short-term and long-term capital losses.
Long-Term Capital GainProfit from selling equity shares or equity-oriented mutual funds held for more than 12 months.Taxed at 10% for gains exceeding Rs. 1 lakh.Can be set off against long-term capital losses only.

Key Points to Remember

Current Year Loss AdjustmentLosses from F&O trading can be set off against capital gains, interest income, and other sources of income except salary.
Speculative LossesLosses from intraday transactions are termed speculative losses. These losses can be carried forward for up to four consecutive financial years. They can only be set off against speculative business income earned during that period.
Accrual/Receipt of Capital GainIt is important to report taxable capital gains in Schedule Capital Gain for advance tax calculation.
Carry Forward Intraday LossesIntraday losses will be reflected in Schedule CFL (Carry Forward Losses).

Tips for Tax Savings

  1. Maintain Records: Keep detailed records of all your transactions, including buy/sell dates, prices, and volumes. This will help in accurate calculation and reporting.
  2. Use Software Tools: Consider using accounting software or tools to track your trading activities. This can simplify the process of preparing your computation sheet and balance sheet.
  3. Consult a Tax Expert: If you are unsure, consulting a tax professional can help avoid mistakes and ensure compliance with all tax regulations.


By following these detailed steps and keeping in mind the tips and points mentioned, you can accurately report your F&O income in ITR 3 for AY 2024-25, ensuring compliance with tax laws and potentially saving on taxes. This comprehensive guide should serve as your go-to resource for all aspects of filing ITR 3 with F&O income.

Guide to Form 10 IEA: Managing Tax Regimes Effectively

1. Introduction Until FY 2022-23, taxpayers actively selected their tax regime using Form 10-IE. However, starting FY 2023-24, the new tax regime becomes the default option. For taxpayers with business income seeking to opt out of or re-enter the new regime, filing Form 10 IEA is essential.

2. Scenarios Covered

  • Default New Tax Regime: Individuals and HUFs without business income default to the new regime if no specific preference is indicated.

    • Example: Sita, a salaried individual without business income, automatically falls under the new tax regime for FY 2023-24.
  • Choosing the Old Regime: Form 10 IEA allows taxpayers with business income to:

    • Opt out of the new regime.
    • Re-enter the new regime after previously opting out.
    • Example: Ramesh, running a small business, prefers the old regime's advantageous deductions and uses Form 10 IEA to opt out of the default new regime.

3. Prerequisites To file Form 10 IEA, taxpayers must have:

  • A valid User ID and Password for the e-Filing portal.
  • Business income included in their total income.

4. Understanding the Form

  • Purpose: Form 10 IEA facilitates the selection between the old and new tax regimes for taxpayers with business income. It can be submitted twice in a taxpayer's lifetime.

    • Example: Priya, with freelance income from consulting, uses Form 10 IEA to revert to the new regime after initially opting out due to changing financial circumstances.
  • Eligibility: The form is applicable to taxpayers with income from business or profession.

    • Example: Mohan, operating a retail business, utilizes Form 10 IEA to maintain consistent tax benefits under the old regime.

5. Key Sections of Form 10 IEA

  • Basic Information: Includes pre-filled details such as Name, PAN, Assessment Year, and taxpayer status.

    • Example: Rajesh's PAN is automatically populated in the Basic Information section of Form 10 IEA.
  • Additional Information: Optional section for details like IFSC unit information, disabled when opting out of the new regime.

    • Example: Neha, opting out of the new regime, skips filling the Additional Information section related to IFSC units.
  • Declaration and Verification: Requires confirmation of the choice to opt out or re-enter the new tax regime.

    • Example: Vivek meticulously reviews his choices in the Declaration section of Form 10 IEA to ensure accuracy before submission.

6. Filing Process

  • Step-by-Step Guide:

    1. Login: Access the e-Filing portal using credentials.
    2. Navigation: Navigate to 'Income Tax Forms' under the 'e-File' menu.
    3. Select Form 10 IEA: Choose the relevant Assessment Year and initiate filing.
    4. Confirm Business Income: Indicate if there is income from business or profession.
    5. Choose Due Date: Select the appropriate due date for filing the income tax return.
    6. Completion: Fill and save each section (Basic Information, Additional Information, Declaration).
    7. Review and Verification: Double-check all details and proceed to verify the form.
    8. Submission: After verification, submit the form and note the Transaction ID for future reference.
  • Viewing Filed Form: Post-submission, download and review Form 10 IEA and its receipt from the 'View filed forms' section under the 'e-file menu'.

This guide provides an analytical approach to navigating Form 10 IEA, ensuring clarity and offering practical examples to assist taxpayers with business income in effectively managing their tax regime preferences.

Deductions From House Property Income – Section 24: Detailed Analysis


Purchasing a home is a significant financial milestone for many individuals in India. It often involves taking on substantial home loan obligations. To alleviate this financial burden, the Income Tax Act provides various tax benefits under Section 24 for income arising from house property.

Income from House Property

Income from house property encompasses:

  • Rental income from properties leased out.
  • Deemed rental income for properties not rented out but considered as such for taxation purposes when owning more than two properties.

For self-occupied properties, the annual value is zero, or it can be negative if interest on home loans is claimed as a deduction.

Key Consideration: Properties exceeding two in number are deemed as rented out regardless of actual rental status, ensuring taxation on potential income from properties.

Understanding Gross Annual Value (GAV)

The Gross Annual Value (GAV) determines the taxable income from house property:

  • Rented Property: Actual rent received.
  • Deemed Rented Property: Reasonable rent for a similar property in the vicinity.

Rationale: This method ensures fair assessment of potential rental income, irrespective of whether the property is actually rented out.

Deductions Under House Property

Municipal Tax

  • Definition: Annual municipal corporation payments.
  • Deduction: Deducted from GAV to compute Net Annual Value (NAV).
  • Condition: Must be paid by the property owner within the fiscal year.

Reasoning: Municipal taxes are essential for property maintenance and are deducted to reflect the property’s true income.

Standard Deduction

  • Rate: Fixed at 30% of NAV.
  • Applicability: Independent of actual expenses incurred.
  • Self-Occupied Property: No standard deduction applies (annual value is zero).

Purpose: Simplifies tax calculations by offering a standardized deduction rate, regardless of specific expenses.

Interest on Home Loan

  • Self-Occupied Property: Deduction up to Rs. 2 lakh.
  • Rented Property: Entire interest on home loan deductible.
  • Conditions:
    • Loan intended for property purchase or construction.
    • Loan initiated after April 1, 1999.
    • Completion of construction within five years from the loan’s fiscal year end.

Caution: Failing to meet these criteria limits interest deduction to Rs. 30,000.

Justification: Interest payments are substantial for homeowners; deductions alleviate financial burdens and encourage property investment.

Additional Deductions

  • Section 80EE: Up to Rs. 50,000 for loans taken between April 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017.
  • Section 80EEA: Up to Rs. 1,50,000 for loans taken between April 1, 2019, and April 1, 2022.
  • Section 80C: Deduction for principal repayment, including stamp duty and registration charges.

Note: New tax regime disallows self-occupied property interest deductions, while they remain available for rented properties.

Benefit: Enhances property investment by providing additional financial relief and incentives.

Eligibility for Section 24 Deductions

Individuals owning residential properties generating rental income or self-occupied properties qualify for Section 24 deductions.

Types of Deductions

Type of DeductionDetails
Standard Deduction30% of GAV for leased properties, irrespective of expenses.
Interest on Home LoanDeduction for loan interest payments based on specified limits.

Logic: Mitigates taxable income by accounting for essential expenses and loan interest, fostering property ownership.

Calculating Gross Annual Value (GAV)

Type of PropertyComputation of GAV
Rented PropertyActual rent received.
Self-Occupied or Deemed RentedMunicipal assessment.

Validation: Ensures an accurate assessment of prospective income from property, thereby facilitating appropriate taxation.

Pre-Construction Interest

  • Definition: Interest during property construction.
  • Treatment: Deducted in five equal installments post-construction completion.
  • Restriction: Self-occupied property deduction capped at Rs. 2 lakh.

Reason: Spreads out tax benefits, easing initial property ownership costs.

Example: Calculating Income from House Property

Consider a scenario:

  • Loan repayment: Rs. 4 lakh annually (including Rs. 2 lakh interest).
  • Pre-construction interest: Rs. 3 lakh.
  • Monthly rent: Rs. 7,000.
  • Municipal taxes: Rs. 3,000.
Type of PropertySelf-OccupiedLet Out
Gross Annual ValueNIL84,000
Less: Municipal TaxesNA3,000
Net Annual Value (NAV)NIL81,000
Less: Standard Deduction (30% of NAV)NA24,300
Less: Interest on Housing Loan200,000200,000
Less: Pre-construction Interest (1/5th of 3 Lakhs)60,00060,000
Total Interest Deduction2,00,0002,60,000
Income from House Property(200,000)(203,300)

Remark: Maximum loss carry-forward to future years capped at Rs. 2 lakh against other income.

Analysis: Demonstrates significant reductions in taxable income through appropriate deductions, underscoring the importance of maximizing eligible benefits.


Strategically utilizing Section 24 deductions can substantially lower tax liabilities. A clear understanding of rules and limits empowers property owners to optimize tax savings effectively.

Final Recommendations

  • Leverage all eligible deductions to minimize taxable income.
  • Maintain accurate records of interest payments and municipal taxes.
  • Understand conditions and thresholds to capitalize on tax-saving opportunities.
  • Evaluate impacts on self-occupied and leased properties comprehensively for comprehensive tax planning.