Saturday, April 13, 2024

Guidance Note: Sale Deed vs. Conveyance Deed in Property Transactions


Real estate transactions often involve substantial financial commitments, typically funded by loans or life savings. For transactions involving co-owners and co-borrowers, the complexity increases, demanding a deeper understanding of Sale Deeds and Conveyance Deeds. This guide provides detailed, analytical checkpoints and cautionary advice to ensure legal compliance and protection of assets during property transactions. It includes critical financial aspects like circle rates, stamp duty, and capital gains tax implications.

Understanding Sale Deed and Conveyance Deed

AspectSale DeedConveyance Deed
DefinitionDocument that effects the transfer of property from seller to buyer specifically upon sale.Broader term that includes sale but also other transfers such as gifts, inheritance, etc.
UsageUsed when a direct sale of property is taking place between two parties.Used in a broader array of property transfers, not limited to direct sales.
Legal RequirementsGoverned by the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, and must be registered under the Indian Registration Act, 1908.Also requires registration under the Indian Registration Act, 1908, and compliance with the Indian Stamp Act, 1899.
Key FeaturesInvolves details like full names and addresses of parties, property description, sale consideration, and terms.Includes similar details but can also encompass additional terms for different types of transfers.

Detailed Checkpoints for Ensuring Robust Property Transactions

Pre-transaction Checkpoints

  1. Legal Verification

    • Verify the property title is clear of disputes and encumbrances, including clarity on shared ownership if co-owners are involved.
    • Ensure that all co-owners agree to the terms of the sale or transfer and have the legal capacity to do so.
  2. Financial Preparation

    • Calculate stamp duty based on the higher of the declared transaction value or the circle rate.
    • Confirm all financial arrangements, especially if co-borrowers are involved, to ensure alignment and capability to meet financial commitments.
  3. Due Diligence

    • Conduct property due diligence, checking for any specific terms or restrictions that apply to transactions involving co-owners.

Transaction Execution Checkpoints

  1. Document Accuracy

    • Ensure the deed accurately reflects the interests and proportions of ownership among co-owners.
    • Verify that all parties’ details are correct and that the terms agreed upon reflect the understanding of all involved.
  2. Compliance with Legal Formalities

    • Ensure the deed is signed by all co-owners and co-borrowers, where applicable, in the presence of the required number of witnesses.
    • Register the deed as per legal requirements, including all associated documentation from each co-owner and co-borrower.
  3. Professional Guidance

    • Engage a qualified real estate attorney to navigate the complexities associated with multiple owners and borrowers.
    • Obtain a clear interpretation of any legal clauses that specifically impact co-owners and co-borrowers.

Post-transaction Checkpoints

  1. Registration

    • Verify that the deed registration includes all co-owners and reflects their respective shares and responsibilities accurately.
    • Ensure comprehensive documentation, including agreements of co-ownership and loan liability sharing among co-borrowers, is filed.
  2. Record Keeping

    • Maintain detailed records of all documents, agreements, and communications related to the transaction.
    • Secure registered copies of the deed, ensuring access to all parties involved, including co-owners and co-borrowers.

Financial Implications and Tax Considerations

  • Stamp Duty: This is determined based on the transaction value or the circle rate, with attention needed on the division of payment among co-owners.
  • Capital Gains Tax:
    • Short-term gains if sold within three years of purchase; taxed as per individual tax rates.
    • Long-term gains if held for more than three years; taxed at 20% with indexation benefits.

Cautionary Tips for Transactions with Co-owners and Co-borrowers

  • Clear Agreements: Establish clear, legally binding agreements detailing each party's contributions, rights, and obligations.
  • Risk Management: Conduct thorough background checks on all parties, including credit checks for co-borrowers.
  • Legal and Financial Advice: Obtain comprehensive legal and financial advice to address any specific challenges arising from shared ownership or borrowing.


Handling property transactions with multiple parties involved requires meticulous planning, thorough legal and financial understanding, and careful coordination among all stakeholders. By following these detailed checkpoints, co-owners and co-borrowers can ensure that their property transactions are legally sound, financially wise, and executed with precision to protect their investments and interests.